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Picosecond Dynamics in Optically Excited Semiconductors: Exciton Dephasing, Ionization Equilibrium and Pauli Blocking

Mondal, Rocharj (2015) Picosecond Dynamics in Optically Excited Semiconductors: Exciton Dephasing, Ionization Equilibrium and Pauli Blocking. PhD thesis, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata.

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    Abstract

    Excitons, the bound states of an electron and a hole, in semiconductors are interesting objects and they continue to attract attention of researchers from all over the world. Despite intense research on exciton physics over last three-four decades, many interesting phenomena related to the dynamics and the nonlinear optical properties of excitons in semiconductors and their nanostructures in the coherent and incoherent regimes are still to be explored. This thesis presents our effort to study the nonlinear optical properties as well as the exciton dynamics in coherent and incoherent regime in semiconductor nanostructures including GaAs quantum wells (QWs) and InAs quantum dots (QDs). We have set up several time-resolved and steady-state optical spectroscopic measurement techniques in our laboratory to carry out our study on excitons dynamics in semiconductor QWs and QDs. We work out a clear and detailed theory of the pump-probe signal taking account of all aspect of the measurement, namely, the lock-in detection, spectral selection by the monochromator and time-integration at the slow photodetector. We have used the formalism of optical Bloch equations conventionally used to analyse wave mixing experiments. Our analysis puts the pump-probe technique on the same footing as the wave mixing experiments. We show that pumpprobe experiments can be used to study both coherent and incoherent dynamics. We also present a clear physical picture of the measured signal using the Lorentz harmonic oscillator model. We report the investigation of the coherent exciton dephasing dynamics using pumpprobe reflectivity measurement in GaAs QWs for resonant excitation. Two GaAs/AlGaAs QWs with well thicknesses 8 nm and 17.5 nm are used. We found a strong dependence of the dephasing rate of the excitons with increasing exciton density due to exciton-exciton scattering. We found that the exciton dephasing rate of 8 nm QWs at low excitation density and at low lattice temperature is larger than the corresponding dephasing rate of the 17.5 nm QWs, possibly due to larger effect of inhomogeneous broadening. We also report that the dephasing rates for both QWs are linear with the sample temperature below the 30 K. We report the study of ionization equilibrium between the exciton and the electronhole plasma population in the temperature and pressure (excitation density) phase space. Non-resonant excitation of semiconductor creates a nonequilibrium state of electron-hole plasma. We investigate this ionization equilibrium using steady state photoluminescence and time-resolved excitation correlation PL measurements. We present a clear phase diagram (in temperature and carrier density phase space) of this ionization process.A clear density-dependent increase in the ionization ratio is observed and its connection with the Mott transition is discussed. Semiconductor nanocrystals and QDs are another important area of research, mainly due to their huge potential for device application. We present a simple model which combines carrier loss kinetics, detailed balance principle in thermodynamic equilibrium and Pauli exclusion principle to quantitatively explain the observed behaviour of the experimental data.

    Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
    Additional Information: Supervisors: Dr. Bhavtosh Bansal and Dr. Bipul Pal
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Dephasing; Exciton; Femtosecond Laser System; Incoherent Exciton Dynamics; Ionization Equilibrium; Optically Excited Semiconductors; Pauli Blocking; Picosecond Dynamics; Quantum Dots; Quantum Wells; Resonant Excitation; Semiconductor Optical Spectroscopy; Semiconductor Quantum Structures
    Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics
    Divisions: Department of Physical Sciences
    Depositing User: IISER Kolkata Librarian
    Date Deposited: 16 Jun 2016 11:01
    Last Modified: 16 Jun 2016 11:02
    URI: http://eprints.iiserkol.ac.in/id/eprint/298

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