Agrawal, Sristy (2018) *Tripartite Genuinely Entangled Subspaces in Arbitrary Dimensions using UPBs.* Masters thesis, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata.

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## Abstract

While we possess a basic understanding of bipartite entangled systems, multipartite entanglement remains mostly unexplored. Specifically, it is quite unclear how several concepts developed for the bipartite case can be generalized in a meaningful way to study multipartite scenarios. At the heart of this research on multiparty quantum states lies the problem of testing the entanglement present in a given state. It has been proved, that in the most general scenario, the question of determining the entanglement or separability of a state is NP-hard. From this perspective, it is desirable to have a construction of states for which some prior knowledge about entanglement properties already exist. One particular approach to this problem relies on the construction of Completely Entangled Subspaces (CESes), i.e., subspaces void of product states. It follows that states in such subspaces are necessarily entangled and form a convex set. This means we possess prior knowledge of entanglement of all states in that subspace. In our study of multiparty systems, we have constructed a specific subclass of the CESes such that all the states residing in the newly constructed subspace is not only entangled but also Genuinely Entangled. A given state is Genuinely Entangled if it is not just entangled for any pair among the multiparty but is entangled with all the parties present and at the same time. The notion of a CES is intimately connected with the idea of Unextendible Product Bases (UPBs). UPBs are sets of twisted orthogonal product states/vectors spanning a proper subset of a given Hilbert space. They have the property that no other product vector exists in the ortho-complement of their span. While UPBs have been relatively well studied for bipartite systems, no known multipartite orthogonal UPBs give rise to Genuinely Entangled Subspace (GES). In our study, we provide schemes for the construction of GES for a tripartite scenario. The construction proposed is linked to a Symmetric Block structure such that it can be extended to any arbitrary dimension.One of the primary motivations for construction of UPBs is to create entangled states which remain Positive under Partial Transposition (PPT). These classes of Entangled States are known to be un-distillable and hence called Bound Entangled, i.e., states in which the resource of Entanglement is not free to be used. These Bound Entangled states are essential to our understanding the basics of Entanglement Theory such as distillability, quantification of entanglement, and the relationship between nonlocality and entanglement (apart from their applications in other quantum information tasks). The construction itself guarantees the PPTness of the state residing in the complementary subspace i.e. formed by the equal mixture of the basis spanning the complementary space. In our study, we propose a symmetric and an asymmetric construction of the Biseperable and Genuinely Entangled states. Via the symmetric construction, we have derived two subspaces, an eight-dimensional CES and a five-dimensional GES within the CES mentioned above. The state formed by the equal mixtures of the CES is a Genuinely Bound Entangled PPT state i.e., it entangled as well as PPT in each cut. To the best of author’s knowledge, the proposed state is the only know Genuinely Entangled PPT state derived from a UPB construction. Additionally, the state lying in the ortho-complement of UPB (i.e., states formed by an equal mixture of the basis of CES) is known to be a PPT Bound Entangled state. However, unlike in case of UPBs, the state in the ortho-complement of Unextendible Biseparable Product basis (i.e. states formed by an equal mixture of the basis of GES) is found to be NPT states across all bipartitions. This is striking and prompts us to believe that the state in the ortho-complement of CES is the only examples of bound entangled state and distinct from other states in the space. We further expect that the state we obtain must exhibit some distinctive features. We verify that this state is one copy undistillable. However, the n-copy undistillablity needs to be probed further, and no conclusive statement regarding the same can be made with our current analysis. The existence of NPT-bound entangled state would prove that the distillable entanglement is nonadditive and not convex. The constructed subspace of Genuinely Entangled States in-turn reveals some peculiar features. As mentioned above, unlike the Bennett et al., 1999 case, the state in the ortho-complement is an NPT state across all bipartition. Furthermore, it was numerically verified by taking one hundred thousand random probability distributions that the entire five-dimensional genuine subspace obtained happens to be NPT. This leads us to conjecture that the subspace obtained is a Genuinly Entangled NPT subspace. To the best of the author’s knowledge, no known genuine NPT subspace exists for the multipartite scenario. The exists only one other NPT subspace for Biseparable States and was suggested by Johnston, 2013. Here, the construction is not related to UPBs. We further argue that if our conjecture on the NPTness of the entire subspace is correct, any four-dimensional subspace of the constructed tripartite NPT GES is also distillable. This would then be the only known distillable subspace in a multipartite scenario. We believe that our study brings us closer to a systematic analysis of multipartite entanglement and provides us with tools to probe further into the current mess of an entangled (read communicating) world of multiple actors.

Item Type: | Thesis (Masters) |
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Additional Information: | Supervisors: Prof. Prasanta K. Panigrahi and Prof. Guruprasad Kar |

Uncontrolled Keywords: | Bipartite Quantum Entanglement; Multipartite Entanglement; Quantum Entanglement; UPBs; Unextendible Product Bases |

Subjects: | Q Science > QC Physics |

Divisions: | Department of Physical Sciences |

Depositing User: | IISER Kolkata Librarian |

Date Deposited: | 06 Dec 2018 12:50 |

Last Modified: | 06 Dec 2018 12:51 |

URI: | http://eprints.iiserkol.ac.in/id/eprint/741 |

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